Khat in ethiopia pdf file

Aug 03, 2019 khat arabi pdf we are the largest arabic online bookstore in south east asia, with more than titles from more than publishers in fiqh, hadeeth, aqidah, philosophy. Khat is now one of ethiopia s largest crops by area of cultivation, the countrys second largest export earner, and an. This study was conducted to assess prevalence of khat chewing practice, its associated factors and perceived health effects among communities in dera woreda, amhara region, ethiopia 20. Kassa echoes the findings of previous studies that have shown khat production and distribution now support the livelihoods of millions of ethiopians. A trader carries bundles of khat chat for the market. Khat definition is a shrub catha edulis of the stafftree family that is cultivated in the middle east and africa for its leaves and buds which are the source of a habituating stimulant when chewed or used as a tea. Definition and validity of the construct problematic khat use. This particular study assessed the prevalence of khat chewing and its predictors in ethiopia. The use or misuse of addictive substances, such as cigarettes, alcohol, and khat catha edulis forsk is increasingly prevalent in ethiopia 14. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat. Another of ethiopias eastern neighbours, djibouti, is reportedly ethiopias most lucrative external market. Khat is a perennial cash crop which has psychoactive properties whose tender leaves are chewed for euphonizing effects. Drug abuse khat dependency highly affects mental health anxiety, depression and social skills of many young lives.

While ethiopias khat trade continues to expand, a growing number of countries around the world are criminalizing. Considered a narcotic in many countries, khat is allowed and very commonly used in ethiopia and more generally in much of east africa, where it is perceived more as a cultural activity than a social problem. Globally different studies have been conducted reporting khat chewing prevalence levels of more than 20% and different impacts, perceptions, and pattern of the practice. What is now needed is empirical research that identifies the impairment effects of khat grounded in social understanding of how khat. This file contains additional information such as exif metadata which may have been added by the digital camera, scanner, or software program used to create or digitize it. Khat expansion and forest decline in wondo genet, ethiopia article pdf available in geografiska annaler series b human geography 902. It has widespread use in somalia, djibouti, ethiopia, and parts of kenya, and is particularly popular in yemen. Khat, or catha edulis, is a flowering plant native to east africa which is legal to grow, sell and consume in ethiopia and used for its stimulant effects. A study done on cigarette smoking and khat chewing among college students in north west ethiopia revealed. Khat chewing is met with different sociocultural, as well as legal perspectives and practices in different countries. It is also known as jimaa in the oromo language, mayirungi in luganda, and as miraa in kenya. Khat is banned in the united states and canada, but ethiopia s central government has no clear policy on the stimulant.

Assessment of drug addiction and its associated factor among. It is believed that khat cultivation originated in ethiopia, and was imported to djibouti, somalia, kenya, uganda, tanzania, zimbabwe, zambia, south africa and yemen. International journal of therapeutic applications, 11, 918. Khat and agricultural transformation in harerge, ethiopia, 18751991. Carrier university of oxford the views expressed in this report are those of the authors, not necessarily those of the. In one of the administrative zones of ethiopia, a populationbased. Background khat chewing has become a highly prevalent practice and a growing public health concern in ethiopia. Prevalence of khat chewing and associated factors in. It is a stimulant like amphetamine and the active ingredients, cathinone and cathine, are class c drugs. This study aimed to identify factors associated with khat chewing practice among ethiopian adults. Khat farmers in its native regions do not grow the plants using seeds.

Khat, the stimulant leaf, has become a premier export commodity for ethiopian with annual earnings exceeding 250 million dollars. Khat, qat, kat, chat, miraa, quaadka september 2019. Before beginnings of 21st century, only limited amount of khat was chewed in ethiopia for socialization and religious purpose. Although, anyone who has the intention to grow khat, may do so using seeds. Khat chewing among ethiopian university students a growing concern article pdf available in bmc public health 141. Prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among ethiopian. Khat or qat is a drug found in the leaves of a wild, east african shrub called catha edulis, which contains the central nervous system stimulant cathinone. Khat is a flowering plant native to east africa and. Khat chewing is believed to be rapidly increasing worldwide.

Moreover, many adolescents have low knowledge towards adverse effects of khat chewing as indicated in literature oshodi et al, 2010. Khat is a flowering plant native to tropical east africa and the arabian peninsula. Open access protocol prevalence and associated factors of. The khat farmer, trader, and majority of chewers are deeply tied to the leaves for historical, economic and cultural reasons. Determine the prevalence and related consequence of khat chewing among students in college of health sciences, mekelle university, mekelle city 2011. Pdf on oct 31, 2018, mekuria wuletaw and others published public discourse on khat catha edulis production in ethiopia.

Wondo genet also transliterated wendo genet is a resort town in ethiopia. Even in regions like tigray, where the plant has been banned, cultivation and usage continues and attempts to replace khat with cash crops like coffee have failed. About a third of the production is exported to djibouti and somalia, but the. The plant is grown commercially in kenya, oman, yemen and ethiopia khat is a shrub. Khat khat catha edulis, a psychostimulant sub stance, is thought to be the second most widely used substance in ethiopia.

Jul 22, 2017 about half of ethiopias youth are thought to chew khat, a psychotropic leaf. Findings could help in designing possible strategies to combat the magnitude of khat chewing in the country. Khat is from a shrub that has been chewed for centuries by people from the horn of africa and arabian peninsula, including the uk, particularly from countries such as somalia, ethiopia and yemen. Coffee and khat are largely grown in small agroforestry and intercropped. For ethiopias underemployed youth, life can center on a leaf. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and identify factors associated with khat chewing among ethiopian university students. Ethiopia, oromia, alem maya, chewing drug khat market, somali women.

Located southeast of shashemene in the sidama zone of the southern nations, nationalities and peoples region, with a latitude and longitude of and an elevation of 1723 meters. Khat chewing among ethiopian university students a growing. The eastern part of ethiopia is generally known for its cash crop production, predominantly khat and coffee, and food crop deficit 1. Khat is also one of ethiopia s biggest export commodities. Khat is one of the many names for the plant catha edulis. Khat chewing among ethiopian university students a. Objective to describe the khat chewing practices and knowledge of oral health effects among. We used a community based crosssectional data collected in 2015 as part of the national steps survey on ncd risk factors. June khat chewing practice and associated factors among adults in ethiopia. Methods the study used the 2011 ethiopian demographic.

As a recreational drug, the leaves and stem are chewed by people in east africa and the. Most often the fresh leaves and shoots are chewed, although it can also be made into a tea or paste. Hence the ethiopian government looks on khat as a useful exportable product to other countries, bringing in sorely need foreign currency, the access to which presents a perennial problem in ethiopia. Khat expansion and forest decline in wondo genet, ethiopia. The plant is grown extensively in subsaharan africa, especially eritrea, ethiopia, somalia, the yemen and kenya. Uses, side effects, interactions, dosage, and warning. Khat is consumed by students when they wish to study for long hours especially during examination periods 12. In ethiopia, study findings regarding the prevalence of khat chewing were highly dispersed and inconsistent. Further analysis using the 2011 demographic and health survey demewoz haile 0 1 yihunie lakew 0 1 0 academic editor. Khat is harvested throughout the year and grows mainly in countries bordering the red sea and along the east coast of africa including ethiopia, kenya, yemen, somalia, sudan, south africa and madagascar.

Pdf khat chewing among ethiopian university students a. Ethiopia is the worlds largest producer of khat, which is the countrys fastest growing export. When grown commercially, the shrubs grow to a size of about 5m, in the wild they can reach about 20m. Khat pronounced cot is a stimulant drug derived from a shrub catha edulis that is native to east africa and southern arabia. Attempts, albeit unsuccessful, have been made to link the use of khat with serious health issues such as psychosis, insomnia, paranoia, and depression. Khat is an ever green plant that grows mainly in ethiopia, ke nya, yemen, and at high altitudes in south. Khat catha edulis is a flowering shrub native to east africa and the arabian peninsula. Importation of khat leaves from ethiopia, kenya and cambodia to hong kong as a general alert from the hong kong customs, they would like to draw you attention to a prevailing trend of drug trafficking in hong kong. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. It is also known as qat, qaat, quat, gat, jaad, chat, chad, chaad and miraa. Although there have been many small scale studies, very limited national information has been available in the general population.

Khat, east africas stimulant leaf, is a global business because of kenyas women quartz africa skip to. Khat is an integral part of the agricultural systems of nearly all regions of ethiopia. In this study, prevalence of cigarette smoking was found to be 8. In mekele, the capital of the regional state of tigray in northern ethiopia, a stateoftheart drug rehab center has helped him to give up all his addictions, including that of khat. The khat plant catha edulis is produced in certain areas of east africa and the arabian peninsula, and the leaves are chewed for their stimulating effect. Khat catha edulis is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in africa and the arabian peninsula. Khat is now one of ethiopia s largest crops by area of cultivation, the countrys second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of ethiopian farmers. Overview of literature and information on khatrelated mortality. In south eastern ethiopia, khat is part of the peoples culture and is never considered as some kind of drug. Its status in turkey, where it is categorized as a controlled substance, is unclear. Khat chewing practice and associated factors among adults. Pdf prevalence of khat chewing and associated factors in. Many different compounds are found in khat including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, glycosides, tannins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals 911.

Khat often refers to the leaves and young shoot of catha edulis. Many literatures agree that it is native to ethiopia. The law in ethiopia does not include free basic education or a compulsory age for education, leaving children vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. Over the last decade khat cultivation has expanded to other regions of ethiopia, and has become an integral part of agriculture in the central and western highlands of ethiopia, as well, says kassa. Khat chewing practice and associated factors among. Khat refers to the leaves and the young shoots of the 520 m high tree catha edulis forsk. Khat leaves have an astringent taste and have an aromatic odour.

Khat chewing nowadays has become an epidemic over east africa especially in ethiopia, somali and southern arab from the old to young, male and female, urban and rural settings. Individuals of east african and middle eastern descent are mot often responsible for the importation, distribution, possession, and use of khat in the united states. Chewing of the leaves of the plant khat catha edulis. Khat chewing practice and associated factors among adults in. In addition to use incountry it is imported into the uk, and sold. To ban or not to ban foreign ban challenges khat export, while govt remains indifferent. Dave khat house with an ethiopian mobile phone number, selling the drug chewed widely in yemen, somalia and is currently legal in ethiopia. However, the lack of consistency in the methods and instruments used in different studies limits the ability to compare population groups and to monitor changes over time. Khat chewing practice and its perceived health effects among. It has been widely used since the thirteenth century as a recreational drug by the. Chewing khat increasingly popular among ethiopians voice. Wondo genet is connected to shashamene by way of wendo wosha, by newly improved paved road. Many literatures agree t hat it is native to ethiopia. It includes information regarding the legality of khat in each jurisdiction and, where it is banned, the applicable penalties.

The estimate of the number of people chewing khat globally ranges from 5 to 10 million people most of which are in the horn of africa and arabian peninsula, specifically ethiopia, somalia, and yemen. Components of agricultural landscapes in khatgrowing regions of ethiopia and their. Acres and acres of khat farms can be seen far into the distance. However, two of its active components, cathinone and cathine, are classed as class c substances. The khat plant itself is not scheduled under the controlled substances act. Khat chewing practice renders certain influence on physical and psychological well being of the community and it can cause more serious adverse psychiatric, cardiovascular, dental and gastrointestinal effects. The khat plant is known by a variety of names, such as qat and gat in yemen, qaat and jaad in somalia, and chat in ethiopia. The east african nation is one of the worlds chief exporters of the crop, earning hundreds of. In the next couple of years sanaa yemeni capital is due to run out of water completley thus becoming the first capital in the world to run out of water and this is largelly due to the cultivation of qat which is a very thirsty plant. A controversial land use and livelihood change scenario 150 outstanding cup quality 1. Dec 18, 2019 khat is a mildly narcotic plant that has been chewed and enjoyed socially for centuries in the horn of africa and the arabian peninsula.

The chewing of khat is tied to social and cultural traditions that date back thousands of years, mostly in northeastern africa and the arabian peninsula where the plant is widely cultivated. Worldwide, it is estimated that 10 million people consume khat daily. It includes information regarding the legality of khat in each jurisdiction and. Communitybased crosssectional study was conducted by. Ethiopia khat is weighed in a customs post near dire dawa. Its true that in most of ethiopia consumption of qatchatmiraa is much lower than in yemen. Pdf public discourse on khat catha edulis production in. Aug 20, 2002 khat is chewed for hours and users say it elevates your mood and stimulates your mind. Khat, while illegal in the united states, is legal in much of europe, east africa, and the arabian peninsula.

Other names of khat are qat, qat, kat, kath, gat, chat, tschat ethiopia, miraa kenya, murungu. Attempts, albeit unsuccessful, have been made to link the use of khat. Review find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. By eden habtamu, ezega news addis ababa, december 8, 2009 a dear friend of mine was trying to counsel his colleague by explaining chewing khat chat may affect his health, personality, finance and generally his social life. A separate study estimated prevalence of khat use in the general population of ethiopia was 27. In the traditional context, khat is used in ritual and habitual ways that exhibit its cultural embeddedness. Delmiro fernandezreyes, university college london, united kingdom 1 1 department of public health, college of medicine and health sciences, madawalabu university, bale robe, ethiopia, 2 ethiopian. Khat simple english wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Ethiopia is thought to be the country of origin of khat use 5. Introduction khat catha edulis is an evergreen shrub that is planted and chewed in eastern through southern parts of africa and the arabian peninsula 1. There is inadequate information regarding their khat chewing practices and knowledge on oral health effects in kenya. Though studies have not been conducted on the social drawbacks of khat, i have observed the isolation of chewers especially from people who do not use khat colleaguesfriends and religious people, for example. Khat chewing practice and its perceived health effects. Importation of khat leaves from ethiopia, kenya and. It has various negative physical, mental, social and cognitive effects. Prevalence of catha edulis khat chewing and its associated. Poor academic performance has been associated with khat. A cross sectional study was conducted on bahir dar. The role of women in the production and sale of khat is often overlooked. The cultural tradition of chewing khat, a leaf that is a mild narcotic, is on the rise in ethiopia. Prevalence, reasons, and perceived effects of khat chewing.

Although there was a murmur of khat chewing among high school students in ataye high and preparatory school, the magnitude. Though khat chewing has become a common practiceamong high school, college and university students in ethiopia, few studies have assessed the prevalence and associated factors. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Khat, catha edulis, is a flowering shrub native to east africa and the arabianpeninsula. The issue is left for regional governments to decide. Prevalence and factors associated with use of khat. The leaf and stem are used as a recreational drug and as medicine. Officials consider such widespread use of the drug, blamed on a lack of work, a huge problem for the country. In its original subtropical locale of ethiopia and yemen, khat grows very easily into small sized trees or large shrubs. Addis abeba, july 272017 increasingly popular among the youth of addis abeba, khat, commonly known as chat by ethiopians, is a controversial perishable stimulant. According to applicable tax laws or secondary sources, khat appears to be legal in djibouti, ethiopia, kenya, somalia, and yemen, but is banned in jordan. The following chart summarizes the legal status of khat catha edulis, also known as kat, qat, chat, and miraa, a plant whose leaves have a stimulant effect when chewed, in seven jurisdictions. The production of khat in ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the worlds leading source.

Khat cultivation in ethiopia fuels economy, reduces. The habit of khat consumption is a deeply rooted social and cultural tra dition in yemen, ethiopia, somalia, and djibouti. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. In many parts of ethiopia, khat catha edulis has emerged from an obscure. Ethiopia is believed to be the country of origin of khat where millions. Jan 31, 2020 khat arabi pdf we are the largest arabic online bookstore in south east asia, with more than titles from more than publishers in fiqh, hadeeth, aqidah, philosophy. About half of ethiopia s youth are thought to chew khat, a psychotropic leaf.

Individuals chew khat leaves because of the stimulant effects, which are similar to but less intense than those caused by using cocaine or methamphetamine. Jul 28, 2017 a trader carries bundles of khat chat for the market hewan semon addis abeba, july 272017 increasingly popular among the youth of addis abeba, khat, commonly known as chat by ethiopians, is a controversial perishable stimulant. The phenylalkylamines and the cathedulins are the major alkaloids. For ethiopias underemployed youth, life can center on a.

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